Ercegovac, Zorana. (2012a). "Digital image tagging: A case study with seventh grade students." School Libraries Worldwide, January/February 2012.

Abstract Results of this exploratory study are of analytical and educational importance. Analytically, the study was designed to gauge middle school students’ capacity to describe digital expressional images. When describing the image attributes, students (N=81) used freely chosen single words, multi-word phrases, interpretations, feelings, and questions evoked by the images. These were used to derive conceptual categories for the seventeen digital images from two open source digital libraries. Educationally, the study demonstrated to the students the responsibility indexers have in their choice of index terms they assign to objects in collections for the purposes of identification, organization and retrieval. The study sheds light on the potential to improve age-appropriate access to images by means of offering a multi-tiered approach to image representation. It also introduces a transparent approach to teaching information literacy concepts through creative thinking about the meaning of resources and their relationship in a broader information cycle context.  

Ercegovac, Zorana. (2012b). “Letting students use Web 2.0 tools to hook one another on reading.” Knowledge Quest, 40(3): 36-39, Jan/Feb 2012.

Abstract This article discusses reading for pleasure as one of the critical pathways for lifelong learning in the context of interdisciplinary research and the mission for school library media programs. The reviewed studies indicate that reading for pleasure results in numerous beneficial outcomes including greater academic achievement among teenagers regardless of their socioeconomic background. In view of the decline of reading for pleasure especially among adolescent learners, school library media leaders have the opportunity to creatively instill students’ love of reading through school library media programs. With that aim, a prototype program ReadReviewRecommend (RRR) was designed using the reviewed research as guidelines combined with triangulated empirically obtained data from participating middle school students in an urban secondary school in Los Angeles. The project connected reading and writing with widely popular social media and mobile devices, and made reading exciting and meaningful across different levels of reading comprehension, individual preferences, and technological competencies. 

Ercegovac, Zorana. (2010). “Plagiarism of print and electronic resources.” In Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences (ELIS, 3rd ed.). New York: Frances and Taylor.

Abstract This entry discusses plagiarism of printed and electronic resources, explores definitions of plagiarism, and
provides a literature review. The entry then discusses the following issues: how prevalent plagiarism is, faculty’s attitudes toward plagiarism in general, cyber-plagiarism in particular, predictors that correlate with plagiarism, and how to cope with plagiarism. The entry offers suggestions for future research on the topic of plagiarism.

Ercegovac, Zorana. (2000) "Toward a global access to bibliographic information: Converging patterns, new paradigms." Obvestila, 5(4) : 4-28. Presented at the COBISS/SICRIS Annual Conference in Maribor, Slovenia, 29-29 November 2000.

Abstract In order to set a framework for our discussion in the area of universal bibliographic control, I will be looking at the information organization models conceptually and historically. I want to start off by reviewing three sets of objectives of library catalogues and the means to achieve the stated objectives since the turn of the 20th century. Roughly, every fifty years, new conceptual frameworks led to cataloging revisions, which, in turn marked distinct methods of organization and access to bibliographic information. In particular, this paper will discuss some of the converging efforts with regard to compatibility among existing metadata, normalization of headings, and sharing of cataloguing records at the international level. I will be also reviewing factors and the effect they have had on the cataloguing theory and practice. Examples are technological developments, economic pressures, heterogeneity of resources, including the exponential growth of digital resources, and heterogeneity of users, including remote users.

Ercegovac, Zorana. (1999) "LEArning Portfolio for accessing engineering information for engineers." In Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science. Knowledge: Creation, Organization and Use. Vol 36, p. 450-461. October 31 - November 4, 1999. Washington, DC. Medford, NJ : Information Today.

Abstract This article describes design considerations of two interrelated programs that together make Learning Portfolio (LEAP) prototype system for accessing engineering information for engineers. The two programs are: Engineering Information Sources and Access (EISA), implemented as a Web-based self-learning prototype system; and Information that Every Engineer should Know; ISEEK adds embedded instructional layer, representative queries, and constitutes the core layer of engineering sources for a beginner engineer. Of analytical significance, the project has (1) defined indicators of information literacy (IL) for engineers; (2) developed IL questionnaire to test engineering students' IL skills; (3) developed information literacy profile of engineering students under study; (4) assessed existing information resources and tools. Of practical significance, we have: (5) applied students' responses in the design of EISA; (6) implemented the EISA information literacy program for engineers; (7) developed a series of hypertext-based tutorials each dealing with a specific IL issue; and (8) proposed set of the four design principles (i.e., understanding the user; active learning; conceptual model of teaching; and modularity).

Ercegovac, Zorana. (1998a) "Information technology literacy: Position paper for the Computer Science and Telecommunication Board (CSTB) of the National Research Council."

Abstract In the broader context of Information Literacy (IL), library and information science literature has recently seen an increased interest among policy makers, teachers, media specialists, and other professionals to define and formulate basic skills and outcome measures of IL programs for students, teachers, and parents/care givers.

In particular, within the context of the National Goals for Education and the evolving World Digital Library System, researchers have an opportunity and responsibility to invest in research and education in the area of IL in order that every person may effectively access an increasingly complex information workspace. However, little empirical research exists on search behavior of students who need access to information for the purposes of independent learning, problem-solving, educational enrichment, and pleasure. Much less is known about teachers' and care givers' information literacy needs, uses, and seeking competencies. One of the ultimate benefits of IL studies is to help close the gap between the information poor and the information rich which is the first step toward achieving the IL equity among the citizens in this country.

My experience with Information Literacy has been with college students at UCLA where I have been teaching a 4-unit GE course, 1991-1998. ST&R7-12 (2000), is available for 7-12 schools. The Program is used teach the entire learning community: students, teachers, parents and administrators. For details, see "Information Literacy: Search Strategies, Tools & Resources" (ST&R) (Ercegovac, InfoEN)

Information Literacy has been defined as the ability to recognize when information is needed, to articulate information requirements, to access, identify, locate, and use information from a variety of sources; additional IL skills include the ability to analyze, interpret, and evaluate information retrieval.

Information Literacy concepts defined. This paper outlines main information life cycle phases and defines related skills that follow these five phases. The cycle typically begins with a question or information need (IL1). In order to answer or clarify their questions, people search various collections of objects (e.g., libraries, archives, museums, inventories, databases, and other informal channels in different forms and media); during this phase, people search, access, display, and interpret information records/surrogates that describe physical objects in collections (IL2). Next phases relate to retrieval processes (e.g., retrieving a physical item, browsing through library shelves, borrowing an item from a remote location) (IL3), and evaluating the retrieved items (IL4). Those items that are of potential relevance are kept and used for a variety of purposes (e.g., writing a paper, self enrichment, pleasure) (IL5).

Ercegovac, Zorana. (1998b) "Resources metadata+user metadata: Toward knowledge metadata." A position paper presented at the Invitational Workshop on Distributed Information, Computation, and Process Management for Scientific and Engineering Environments (DICPM). Ed. Micholas M. Patrikalakis, MIT. Herndon, Va : December 23, 1998. The Workshop was supported by the National Science Foundation, the Information and Data Management Program and the Robotics and Human Augmentation Program of the Information and Intelligent Systems Division, et al. http://deslab.mit.edu/DesignLab/dicpm/

Abstract In order to enhance the organization of digital resources on the Internet, it might be useful to look at some of the traditional features that have been successful in organizing and describing printed resources in bibliographies and periodical indexes. Bibliographies are typically compiled and annotated by experts in a given field (e.g., Bibliography of American Imprints to 1901; the Law-of-theSea: A bibliography). Periodical indexes (e.g., Engineering Index, Inspec) are designed to provide timely access to the periodical literature, papers presented at conferences, and parts of books. These features include Preface, Intended Users, and Instructional model of how to use a certain tool; together, they provide a rich layer of information about the collections and its uses. We believe that these techniques have not been sufficiently exploited in the context of designing metadata standards for describing large heterogeneous distributed datasets on the Web; their conceptual simplicity and complementarity to the model of library catalogs might help the user see the inner structure of the collections better than it has been possible so far, and increase the probability that only relevant objects from these collections will be retrieved.

Ercegovac, Zorana. (1999) "Introduction," to the Special Topic Issue of JASIS, "Integrating Multiple Overlapping Metadata Standards." Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 50(13).

Abstract Metadata has remained one of the critical components in the context of knowledge representation and data mining in digital libraries as it had traditionally been in the context of the pre-Web libraries. Today in the digital libraries environment in which individual collections of massive heterogenous objects need to be unified and linked
in a single resource, we have witnessed both the growth of different metadata and the attempts to reconcile the common attributes in the existing overlapping standards. The ultimate goal is to make it possible to access relevant information seamlessly regardless of its type (e.g., visual and museum objects, historical data, cultural heritage, scientific data), location, and scholarly tradition (e.g., librarians, archivists, scientists). This Special Issue of JASIS addresses different applications of metadata standards in geospatial collections, education, historical costume collection, data management, and information retrieval, and explores the future thinking of metadata standards for digital libraries.  

Ercegovac, Zorana. (1998c) "Minimal level cataloging: What does it mean for cartographic materials in the contexts of card catalogs, online catalogs, and digital libraries?" Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 49(8):706-719.

Abstract In this paper we examine some of the proposals which have dealt with the  problems in cataloging in two different technological contexts, printed-card  catalogs and online catalogs. We first look at some of the measures which  attempted to deal with the "crisis in cataloging" at the Library of Congress in  the 1940s. Then we address some of the current problems in cataloging in the era of online public access catalogs (OPACs). In particular, we discuss the extent to which minimal-level cataloging, as defined by the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR2) and implemented in the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) database,works for maps. Our discussion is organized around two main groups of access points: controlled vocabulary data elements including name data elements, and free-text data elements. In closing, we discuss prospects  that the next generation of online catalogs using the Z39.50 protocol and SGML  format might offer to minimal level cataloging for maps.

Ercegovac, Zorana. (1997) "The interpretation of library use in the age of digital libraries: Virtualizing the name." Library & Information Science Research, 19(1):31-46.

Abstract This article describes the results of a case study designed to examine the extent to which non-library school students agree in interpreting the term library use.The concept of library use is operationalized with 22 well-established library activities. These activities define library as a space, a store, and as a service. We gathered answers by means of a questionnaire in a sample of 57 upper-division undergraduate non-library school students at the University of California, Los Angeles. If upper division undergraduates, who are sufficiently motivated to enroll in a college-level library course have difficulties in interpreting the concept of library use, then it seems likely that the general population would have more serious problems with the interpretation of library use. The degree of variation in how college non-library school students interpret basic library activities is surprisingly high. The study suggests that the notion of the library as a space is better agreed upon than the notion of the library as a store or service. We also identify and briefly discuss paradigm shifts away from the traditional to digital libraries which continue to influence how libraries store and organize information and how users perceive, access and use today's libraries.

If our students are to become self-sustaining and effective users of information sources and services, they need to understand a variety of library uses. The study's findings have wide implications for designing user-centered information access instructional programs. Methodologically, these findings have implications in the area of constructing meaningful questionnaire surveys and wording precisely even the most basic library terms. 

Ercegovac, Zorana. (1995) "Information access instruction (IAI4): Design principles." College & Research Libraries, 56(3): 249-57.

Abstract This article proposes four design principles: The User, Active Learning, Conceptual Model of Teaching, and Modularity, as a conceptual framework of an Information Access Instruction (IAI4). These principles, when put in practice as specific guidelines, seamlessly link information sources together, regardless of their implementation medium, information structure, or interface style. Examples are drawn from a section of a four-unit elective undergraduate course taught in the Department.

Ercegovac, Zorana and Harold Borko. (1992) "Performance evaluation of Mapper." Information Processing and Management, 28(2):259-268.

Abstract We report on a two-year study funded by the Online Computer Library Center and the National Science Foundation to evaluate an experimental semi-automatic cataloging advisor--Mapper designed to assist the intermittent user in the descriptive cataloging of certain U.S. produced single-sheet maps. The study is concerned with questions relating to research design and performance evaluation aspects. The study has shown that library students who are map cataloging novices can achieve significantly better cataloging answers when assisted by the Mapper than those who were not assisted by the Mapper. This paper is based on the doctoral work by Ercegovac (1990).

Ercegovac, Zorana. (1993) "Principle of cultural diversity in the design of 'Right-to-Know' databases." Proceedings of the Fourteenth National Online Meeting. New York, May 4-6, 1993. Ed. Martha E. Williams. Medford, NJ : Learned Information.

Abstract This paper discusses two classes of non-bibliographic safety-related databases with regard to their access from the perspective of an online searcher. These databases in part support the Environmental Protection Agency's Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) provisions of Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Hazard Communication Standard (HCS). We argue that while EPCRA and HCS have become powerful tools for regulatory authorities, database designers have the opportunity and responsibility to improve access and organization of current 'Right-to-Know' databases so that those who need the information most can obtain it at the level they can absorb and in the language they can understand. Because socioeconomically disadvantaged populations are often underqualified for environmentally safer and higher paid jobs, they are subjected, through inhalation, injestion, skin contact, or absorption, to the highest degree of environmental threats in the course of their employment. A hypothetical model is proposed as a basis for designing a "community right-to-know" outreach program at the University of California Los Angeles. The model accounts for sociocultural and work-related characteristics of populations located in the South-Central Los Angeles metropolitan statistical area.

Ercegovac, Zorana and Harold Borko. (1992a) "Design and implementation of an experimental cataloging advisor--Mapper." Information Processing and Management, 28(2):241-257.

Abstract The main objective of this study is to understand how an experimental, semi-automatic cataloging advisor (Mapper) could be designed to assist the intermittent user in the descriptive cataloging of certain U.S. produced single-sheet maps. The study is concerned with formalizing experts judgment into a set of rules which are then used to design Mappers knowledge base. The questions of user modeling and human-computer compatibility are examined in order to propose a set of user interface characteristics related to Mapper's design. Mapper is implemented using the Apple HyperCard system. This work is based on the dissertation by Ercegovac (1990).

Ercegovac, Zorana. (1992b) "A multiple-observation approach in knowledge acquisition for expert systems: A case study." Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 43(7):506-517.

Abstract This article describes (i) the elicitation component of Knowledge Acquisition (KA) in the domain of cartographic cataloging of single-sheet maps produced by three U.S. map-making agencies; and (ii) the performance evaluation results that demonstrate the effectiveness of the elicitation method. A multiple-observation approach was used to elicit knowledge that human experts use when solving descriptive cataloging problems. The use of the elicitation techniques is discussed in view of problem identification goals and their applicability for this study. A body of published knowledge was integrated with a body of the elicited personal knowledge to form the knowledge-base of an experimental cataloging advisor--Mapper. The study demonstrates that library students, who are map cataloging novices, can produce significantly better cataloging answers when assisted by the Mapper than can those who were not assisted by the Mapper. Better scores of Mapper students are attributed mainly to the elicited personal knowledge.

Ercegovac, Zorana. (1990) "Proposed definitional conditions as a basis to study the concept of map author." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 10(4):19-50.

Abstract This paper describes an empirical project designed to examine the following questions:

(i) what constitutes the concept of "map author", and (ii) of the responsibility functions appearing in a sample of 178 maps under consideration, which responsibility functions participate significantly in the process of map-making? This study, exploratory in nature, considered single-sheet maps produced by three U.S. publishers after 1981 as found in the OCLC online database, retrieved, and examined by the investigator.