If totally sure use a definite, a, b, c response.
If totally unsure use an m response.

If see one definitely wrong a, b, c value, choose among the remaining five on the opposite line.

Indicate preference between two values by d, f, g, i, j, l responses.

Indicate uncertainty between two values by e, h, k responses.

### Values Between a and m Indicate Belief

ChoiceLetterPointsFraction
Correcta b c301.000
Wrong
-1000.000
Uninformedm00.769
Near Rightd f g i j l200.923
Between Twoe h k100.846
Near Wrongd f g i j l-100.692

### Loss Matrix

abc
a30-100-100
b-10030-100
c-100-10030
d-10-10020
e10-10010
f20-100-10
g20-10-100
h1010-100
i-1020-100
j-10020-10
k-1001010
l-100-1020
m000

The definition of risk is expected loss.

Rows indicate points given to a through m answers when the respective column headings are true.

The loss-matrix values cause minimum risk only when a, b, c is answered when more than 95% certain. Otherwise there is a strong preference for an m response. Thus unless truly knowledgeable about the test question, students not following the rule "answer a, b, c only when certain" fall below the upper levels.