In this paper, we develop an approach to lemma synthesis that is both goal-directed and expressive. The key novelty is a technique for reducing lemma synthesis to a data-driven program synthesis problem, whereby examples for synthesis are generated from the current proof state. We also describe a technique to systematically introduce new variables for lemma synthesis, as well as techniques for filtering and ranking candidate lemmas for presentation to the user. We implement these ideas in a tool called lfind, which can be run as a Coq tactic. In an evaluation on four benchmark suites, lfind produces useful lemmas in 68% of the cases where a human prover used a lemma to make progress. In these cases lfind synthesizes a lemma that either enables a fully automated proof of the original goal or that matches the human-provided lemma.
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